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Supporting North Macedonia to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

North Macedonia, a small, landlocked country in southern Europe of 25,713 km2, is located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula on an elevated plateau that is bisected and surrounded by hill and mountainous terrain, which covers 79 percent of North Macedonia’s territory. Despite the country’s small size, the climate ranges from alpine in the west and northwest of the country, to Mediterranean in the southern districts of the Vardar river valley, and is characterized by cold winters, hot summers and a highly variable precipitation regime with high levels of biodiversity. Climate change impacts are already evident in North Macedonia. Six of the ten warmest years on record since 1951 have occurred between 2007 and 2012 and a heat wave has been recorded in almost every year since 1987. The North Macedonian economy is relatively diverse though highly reliant on industrial manufacturing and energy production, and agricultural land uses and forests, which cover almost 80% of the country. Forty percent of the population is rural and 21.7 percent of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. Poverty is exacerbated by a high unemployment rate of 23 percent. Agriculture has significant importance to North Macedonia in terms of employment, rural livelihoods, food security and exports.

Energy sector and resilience to climate change are identified as one of the main contributors towards national sustainable development. Recognizing the important steps forward in the institutionalization of climate change issues and the mainstreaming of climate change considerations into the national and sectorial development policies, the development of three National Communications to the UNFCCC, the First Biennial Update Report and the 2015 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) have contributed to the strengthening of climate mainstreaming processes. As part of North Macedonia’s Third National Communication, analysis of impacts, vulnerability and adaptive capacity was undertaken for eight sectors (agriculture and livestock, biodiversity, forestry, human health, tourism, cultural heritage, water resources and socio-economic development) with a special focus on the Southeast Region, which had been identified as being especially vulnerable to climate change. The development of the Forth National Communication is underway and should be completed by the end of 2021. In January 2018, North Macedonia ratified the Paris Agreement.

The Government of the Republic of North Macedonia requested support for the development of its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and was one of the first countries requesting the Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. With support from the joint UNDP-UNEP NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP), a preliminary mission was undertaken in March 2017 to identify, in consultation with stakeholders, North Macedonia’s needs regarding the NAP process. The mission allowed for a preliminary assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process, through qualitative interviews and an extensive desk review.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the preliminary assessment mission and NAP Roadmap 

 

In March 2017, a preliminary mission was organized for initial consultations on North Macedonia’s NAP process. A Roadmap was then developed with the purpose to facilitate a consensus on the approach for the design of the NAP process. The roadmap identifies the overall approach to implementing the NAP process and the main work-streams (components) and activities for the first iteration of the NAP.

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report and identified key entry points
 
Informed A stocktaking report was produced and outlines the implementation of the NAP I approach that will occur through three parallel work-streams (components). The first two components focus on establishing the foundations for a strong and effective NAP process and adaptation planning in general, and the third focuses on support for integrating lessons learnt into adaptation planning.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

The Government of the Republic of North Macedonia requested support for the development of its national adaptation plan (NAP) process, and one of the first countries requesting Green Climate Fund (GCF) readiness financing for this purpose. The stocktaking report was formulated as the basis for a GCF funding request.
 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (22.499999988783 41.586688356211)
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Eight Municipalities and National Parks Selected for Nature Protection Grant Scheme - June 2018 - A total of eight applicants representing a diverse group of municipalities and national parks have been selected to receive grants of EUR 200,000 – 400,000 for nature protection projects.

“Not a garbage dump”: New landfill in Gevgelija to meet highest environmental standards - January 2018 - The sanitary landfill project meets an urgent need to replace a hazardous illegal landfill now overspilling by the River Vardar in Gevgelija.

Cleaner Soil Leads to Healthier Yields - December 2017 - More than 200 farmers have developed knowledge and expertise in plant and soil interaction over the past year by attending UNDP and SDC educational seminars.

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Mar 2003
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its First National Communication
Month-Year: 
Nov 2004
Description: 
North Macedonia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol
Month-Year: 
Feb 2008
Description: 
North Macedonia publishes its National Strategy for Sustainable Development for the Republic of North Macedonia
Month-Year: 
Jan 2009
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its Second National Communication
Month-Year: 
Mar 2014
Description: 
North Macedonia communicates its Third National Communication
Month-Year: 
Aug 2015
Description: 
North Macedonia submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Mar 2017
Description: 
Macedonia hosts a preliminary mission supported by the NAP GSP to identify and stock take North Macedonia’s needs regarding a NAPs process
Month-Year: 
Jan 2018
Description: 
North Macedonia ratifies the Paris Agreement

Supporting Peru to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Peru is located in the north-west of South America, with 2,414 kilometres of Pacific Ocean coastline. It has seven of the nine characteristics recognised to be “particularly vulnerable” to climate change impacts, by the UNFCCC. Studies reveal that temperatures and rainfall patterns are changing throughout the country. It is predicted that precipitation will decrease between 10 to 20 percent in the mountain regions and the northern and central Amazon areas, while the coastal regions are likely to experience an increase in rainfall of around 10 percent. The hydrological system is also being affected through the retreat of glaciers, meaning a decline in dry season discharge. In addition to this, annual climate-induced threats such as frost, drought and floods are increasing, severely affecting many parts of the country. 
 
As of 2018, about 28.02 percent of the Peruvian population is employed in agriculture, fishing and mining. And since 1960, Peru’s rural population declined from 53 to 22.28 percent. In these areas and areas inhabited by indigenous people, this reliance on natural resources and increasingly vulnerable ecosystems is problematic. Threatening climate events such as the 1997-1998 “El Niño” significantly impacted Peru’s economy with losses equivalent to 4.5 percent of that year’s GDP. Further, studies indicate that changes in the country’s future climatic state are likely to lower its real GDP up to 23.4 percent by 2050. 
 
To combat these threats, Peru has developed an institutional framework underpinned by a series of policy documents. Its three National Communications (2001; 2010; 2016) to the UNFCCC outline the expected climate-related impacts up to 2100, and details ongoing and planned interventions initiated by the government. These climate change documents, along with key national development plans such as the Bicentenary Plan or the National Strategy for Development and Social Inclusion aim to protect the significant development gains and economic strengthening Peru has experienced over the last decade, paving the way towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Furthermore, Peru’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC outlines specific areas of focus for climate change adaptation policies. The following systems and sectors are highlighted as priorities: water and water resources; agriculture; fisheries; forestry; and health. It is also important to note that 77.72 percent of Peru’s population lives in urban areas, and due to this fact, the NDC acknowledges how essential it is for Peru to promote the concept of "Resilient Cities" as units of climate risk management.
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Helped to advance their NAP process

 

In particular, by working closely with the Ministry of Environment to advise them on the development of the NAP roadmap.

 

Conducted a support mission to Peru

 
Between 18-22 April 2016, the NAP-GSP undertook a mission to Peru. The objectives of the mission were to: (1) work with the Ministry of Environment to review adaptation advances and develop a NAP roadmap; and (2) provide an overview of the UNFCCC guidelines for NAP, and shared experiences of other countries supported by NAP-GSP to a multi-stakeholder working group
 

 

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29 April 2016, Lima, Peru - NAP-GSP and UNDP have provided technical assistance to Peru to advance their NAP process, by working closely with the Ministry of Environment to advise them on the development of the NAP roadmap. NAP-GSP has also provided an overview of the UNFCCC guidelines for NAP, and shared experiences of other countries supported by NAP-GSP to a multi-stakeholder working group during a support mission in April 2016.

 

> Highlights of support offered to advance Peru's NAP roadmap

Project Dates: 
2019
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sep 2015
Description: 
Peru submits their Intend Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement, which states their intention to develop a NAP by 2020
Month-Year: 
Apr 2016
Description: 
Peru receives technical assistance by NAP-GSP and UNDP to advance the NAP process and develop a NAP roadmap
Month-Year: 
Jul 2016
Description: 
Peru ratifies the Paris Agreement and submits their First NDC

Supporting Haiti to advance their NAP process

 

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Haiti, although rapidly urbanising, has a population that still relies heavily on subsistence agriculture and the flour and sugar industries for their livelihoods. As a small island developing state (SIDS) Haiti is exposed to the threat of sea level rise and increasingly intense hurricanes and tropical storms. These hazards are jeopardising food security, infrastructure and the safety of the population.
 
Haiti’s geographical location, high levels of deforestation and land degradation, and weak institutional capacity are all factors that increase the country’s vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Recent hurricanes, such as Hurricane Mathew (2016) that left 1.4 million people in need of humanitarian aid, are examples of the destruction that can be caused in a country with limited capacity to adapt to these oncoming changes. 
 
The government of Haiti has made progress in planning for climate change adaptation, and in 2015, they stated their commitment to develop a NAP by 2020 in their Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) which they submitted in accordance with the Paris Agreement. In 2017 they introduced the National Climate Change Policy (PNCC). This institutional framework provides a platform for the NAP process to be extended from and aims to adopt appropriate and effective adaptation actions that are aligned to the Sustainable Development Goals. This comprehensive approach will reduce the vulnerability of Haiti’s industries, economy and its people, to the effects of climate change, paving the way towards sustainable development.
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Conducted a mission to Haiti

 

In August 2017, the NAP-GSP undertook a mission to Haiti and initiated a stocktaking of available information, policies, plans, strategies and programmes relevant to the NAP process.

 

Production of a Stocktaking Report

 
Based the stocktaking mission, a Stocktaking Report was produced in consultation with all key stakeholders. This included a roadmap outlining the processes and objectives needed to develop the NAP. The participatory development of the NAP roadmap began at an inter-sectoral NAP training held in Montrouis, Haiti, and was later validated at a high-level NAP consultation workshop held in Port-au-Prince.
 
 

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 
 
Specifically, through supporting the preparation of a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal, to submit to the Green Climate Fund, that outlines a NAP project a request for funding.
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sep 2015
Description: 
Haiti submits their Intend Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement, which states their intention to develop a NAP by 2020
Month-Year: 
May 2017
Description: 
The National Climate Change Policy (PNCC) is validated, providing a natural point of entry for the NAP process
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
Haiti ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Aug 2017
Description: 
NAP-GSP undertakes a mission to Haiti to take stock of adaptation policies and suggest next steps for the country’s NAP process
Month-Year: 
Sep 2017
Description: 
A Stocktaking Report and a preliminary roadmap for advancing the NAP process in Haiti is developed
Month-Year: 
Apr 2018
Description: 
A Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal is submitted to the GCF for potential funding for the NAP process
Month-Year: 
Ongoing
Description: 
Consultation with the GCF about refining the Readiness proposal

Supporting Moldova to advance their NAP Process

 

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country with a continental climate, characterised by relatively mild winters with little snowfall, warm summers and low humidity. Favourable farming conditions and a rural population of 60 per cent  indicate that Moldova’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture.  Furthermore, with around 90 per cent of the crop production being rain-fed, the agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change, which poses risks such as droughts, floods and hail. 

Moldova has effectively responded to the challenges posed by climate change, and under the coordination of their national strategic framework, the Climate Change Adaptation Coordination Mechanism (CCACM), it has already successfully completed the 1st phase of their NAP process (NAP-1), which aimed to ensure the development of systematic capacities to support medium to long-term adaptation planning and budgeting. 

In 2017, on top of completing NAP-1 and turning their efforts to the formulation of NAP-2, Moldova also submitted their Intended NDC to the UNFCCC in 2015, which later became their First NDC, as they ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017. The NDC includes an Annex containing a comprehensive assessment of the country’s engagement with adaptation planning, including; (1) climate change trends, impacts and vulnerabilities; (2) mid-term adaptation vision, goals and targets; (3) current and planned adaptation undertakings; (4) gaps and barriers; (5) summary of needs; and (6) monitoring and reporting progress. The NDC outlines agriculture, health, water resources, energy, forestry and transport as the most climate-sensitive sectors, also a priority for the NAP process. Moldova is working towards the consideration of climate change adaptation at all levels of planning, which will secure more sustainable development and advance the progress towards the SDGs.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Provided support for the to other adaptation projects

 

 

The "Supporting Moldova’s National Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process" project  is funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation Agency (ADA). The NAP-GSP helped support this project.

 

 

Organised the Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP process

 

 
 

In June 2016, the NAP-GSP organised a Regional Workshop, in Chisinau, Moldova. The workshop convened government representatives from across the region to share experiences and knowledge on how best to advance the NAP process.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

Specifically supported with the drafting of the Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal, outlining finance needs for the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2), to be submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The Readiness proposal was submitted to the GCF on 19th August 2016 for review.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (24.257812488468 42.342305277685)

Reports and Publications by country teams

Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

 > Improving meteorological services in Moldova

11 April 2016, Moldova  - This UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Exposure captures how improved meteorological services can provide advanced warning on extreme weather, allowing farmers and communities to further plan ahead and prepare for the exacerbating impacts of climate change

Display Photo: 
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2013
Description: 
The first phase of the NAP process (NAP-1) is initiated
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
Moldova submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Sep 2017
Description: 
A survey with line ministries is finalised and identifies further areas in Moldova's adaptation that require support
Month-Year: 
Oct 2017
Description: 
A workshop is held to discuss adaptation priorities
Month-Year: 
Nov 2017
Description: 
The NAP-1 is completed, with almost all activities in the initial document implemented within an overall budget of US$ 1.2 million
Month-Year: 
2018
Description: 
Two Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposals are being drafted, with support from UNDP and FAO, to request funding from the GCF to support the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2)

Supporting Montenegro to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Montenegro is a small country located in the south-east of Europe on the Adriatic Sea. In the south, it has a temperate Mediterranean climate and in the northern, mountainous region the climate is more extreme, with hot summers and extremely cold winters. The economy is relatively diverse, but despite this, 70 per cent of rural incomes depend on agriculture.
 
Between 2001 and 2010, Montenegro experienced its warmest decade on record. Recent climate variability has led to destructive floods that have seriously damaged transport, urban and agricultural infrastructure, and private property in 2010. Climate projections indicate that overall precipitation is likely to decrease by around 10 per cent by 2030, the intensity and frequency of droughts and heat-waves will rise, and there will be increased occurrences of flooding and extreme weather events. 
 
Montenegro’s key climate documents are the National Climate Change Strategy by 2030 and the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC). These documents build on the national institutional framework and outline the climate change priorities and guide Montenegro towards meeting its obligations to the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Also, Montenegro’s Second National Communication to the UNFCCC (2015) outlines the consequences of various climate change scenarios and projections. However, despite these documents, adaptation as an area of focus has only recently surfaced in national policy and laws, with mitigation having previously been the predominant focus. 
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Undertook a stocktaking mission to identify next steps in the NAP process
 

 

Between 1 – 3 February 2017, a NAP-GSP team undertook a preliminary mission to identify Montenegro’s strategic priorities regarding the NAP process. Through a stakeholder roundtable, qualitative interviews and extensive desk research, an assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming, the institutional framework, and capacities relevant to the NAP process was conducted.
 

 

Developed a roadmap for Montenegro’s NAP process
 
 
Informed by the stocktaking mission and a rapid assessment of the gaps in Montenegro's adaptation planning, a Stocktaking Report was produced including a roadmap for the NAP process. The report identified the following capacity gaps and needs: (1) a lack of awareness about adaptation measures and how they can be integrated into current plans; (2) insufficient information on climate risks and vulnerabilities; and (3) reduced access to low-cost knowledge products due to language barriers.
 
 

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance
 

 

 

Montenegro submitted a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) in September 2016. The Readiness proposal was subsequently approved by the GCF, providing Montenegro with funding to support the strengthening of the NDA and developing strategic frameworks for engagement with the GCF - two important elements for the effective advancement of the NAP process in the country.
 
 
 

 

 

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Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2018
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
Montenegro submits their Intend Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Jun 2016
Description: 
Government delegation from Montenegro attends the NAP-GSP Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop, Chisinau, Moldova
Month-Year: 
Feb 2017
Description: 
NAP-GSP undertakes a mission to Montenegro to take stock of adaptation policies and suggest next steps for the country’s NAP process
Month-Year: 
Mar 2017
Description: 
A Stocktaking Report and a preliminary roadmap for advancing the NAP process in Montenegro is developed
Month-Year: 
Dec 2017
Description: 
Montenegro ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
Readiness proposal submitted to the GCF for potential funding to support the NAP process (1st submission was in July 2017, and second submission was in August 2018)

Supporting Indonesia to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Indonesia is an archipelagic country home to approximately 260 million people, the 4th most populous country in the world.  As population grows, so do the impacts of natural hazards, floods and droughts, which are all being intensified by climate change. Furthermore the country is dealing with sea level rise, predicted to affect 42 million people living in low-lying coastal zones. Deforestation and forest degradation is exacerbating the vulnerability of these coastal zones, making nature-based solutions, such as mangrove reforestation, appropriate adaptation strategies.
 
The agricultural, water and fishing industries account for the majority of livelihoods in Indonesia, as well as being those most vulnerable to climate change. Protecting these industries from the accelerating effects of climate change are crucial to Indonesia’s national plans. Although a NAP hasn’t been developed yet, the National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API) is the first comprehensive strategy focusing on adaptation. The RAN-API and the NDC Indonesia submitted to the Paris Agreement provide a sturdy framework for the NAP process to build from, and advance the integration of climate change adaptation into Indonesia’s planning and budgeting process, and maintain progress towards achieving the SDGs.
 
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Conducted a stocktaking exercise

 

 
This exercise was undertaken to identify gaps and needs to advance the NAP process, as well as key areas for adaptation planning through the enhancement of the RAN-API. The stocktaking identified areas where the integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and budgeting processes could be accelerated. Other areas included the improvement of the vulnerability assessment process in adaptation, as well as enhancing tracking and monitoring of adaptation interventions and vulnerability areas. 

 

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 
The results of the stocktaking exercise are contributing towards the formulation of a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal, being developed by the government with support from UNDP, to be submitted to the Green Climate Fund, for the potential allocation of funds to support adapation planning and the NAP process.
 

 

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News and Updates: 

> UNDP supporting Indonesia in drive for climate-resilient farming communities

May 2018 - Around the world, the adverse impacts of climate change are being felt keenly by smallholder farmers. The UN Development Programme is now supporting Indonesia – a country in which around 30% of the population is employed in agriculture – to help acutely vulnerable farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur to adapt. 

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2018
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Oct 2016
Description: 
Indonesia ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Nov 2016
Description: 
Indonesia submits their First Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the Paris Agreement, which states the intent to develop a NAP by 2020
Month-Year: 
2017
Description: 
Indonesia requests support from the NAP-GSP, to help advance their NAP process
Month-Year: 
2017
Description: 
A stocktaking exercise takes place to identify gaps and entry points for adaptation planning

Addressing the Risks of Climate Induced Disasters in Bhutan through Enhanced National and Local Capacity for Effective Actions

The current NAPA II project, Addressing the Risk of Climate-Induced Disasters through Enhanced National and Local Capacity in Bhutan,  will address urgent and immediate climate change adaptation needs and leverage co-financing resources from national government, bilateral and other multilateral sources, and the private sector.  The project is working to “enhance national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihood and livelihood assets.”

The USD 11.49 million project is funded by Global Environment Facility/Least Developed Countries Fund, and coordinated by the National Environment Commission Secretariat in partnership with UNDP, Bhutan. The project will safeguard essential economic and livelihood infrastructure in hazard-prone communities and key industrial areas from increasing climate hazards such as floods, landslides, windstorms and forest fire through reducing vulnerability at high-risk areas and increasing adaptive capacity of community-level disaster risk management institutions.

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012), and the Bhutan NAPA II brochure, June 2015.

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.3851300344 26.8640612086)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Rural communities in Bhutan

Brochures, Posters, Communications Products

Assessments and Background Documents

Bhutan Second National Communication (2011)

Plans and policies of relevance to NAPs for Least Developed Countries (LDCs)

PIFs

UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 2012)

Financing Amount: 
USD 11.49 million (as detailed in the Project Brochure, June 2015)
Project Details: 

The overarching objective of the project is to increase national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate-induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihoods and livelihood assets. This objective is fully aligned with the development priorities of the RGoB as set out in Bhutan’s tenth 5-year plan, which is in turn underpinned and guided by the long-term development vision of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity and Happiness. Under the four pillars of GNH (i.e. sustainable and equitable socio-economic development; environmental conservation; preservation and promotion of culture; and good governance), the 5-year plan places a strong emphasis, among others, on balanced rural-urban development for poverty alleviation, expansion/maintenance of key economic infrastructure including road infrastructure that connects rural and urban centers, and strengthening of the agricultural sector which continues to employ the majority of Bhutanese and be the backbone of the rural economy.

This project will implement priority interventions addressed in Bhutan's National Adaptation Programme of Actions corresponding to the following objectives, in part or full, as outlined in NAPA profile:

  • Disaster management strategy
  • Weather forecasting system to serve farmers and agriculture
  • Landslide management and flood prevention
  • Flood protection of downstream industrial and agricultural area
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Promote community-based forest fire management and prevention

Situated on the southern slope of the Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan’s landscape is mountainous and rugged with elevations ranging from 100m in the southern foothills to 7500m towards north. Due to its topography, habitable and arable areas are limited to approximately 8.3% and 2.9%, respectively, of the landmass. Agriculture, which employs 69% of the population and accounts for 78% of monetary income in rural households, and industrial activities are largely practiced in this highly confined space that its topography permits. While Bhutan is in general endowed with abundant water resources from the four major rivers and their tributaries, most of the large rivers are at the bottom of valleys and gorges rendering these rich water resources largely inaccessible for agriculture or domestic use. As a result, irrigation is limited to areas near small perennial streams that exist above main rivers and majority of farmers rely primarily on monsoonal rains, which account for 60-90% of annual precipitation.

Bhutan is one of the most disaster prone countries in the Asia-Pacific region, irrespective of the presence of climate change. The country is exposed to multiple hazards, most prominently flash floods, landslides, windstorms, earthquakes, forest fires, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In terms of relative exposure to flood risks (as % of population), Bhutan ranks fourth highest in the region. Although the direct human risks of landslides, windstorms, and forest fires are not particularly higher compared to other countries, the socioeconomic repercussions from these events are thought to be high due to the baseline poverty prevalence.

Climate change is likely to magnify the intensity and frequency of these hazards. In fact, according to the International Disaster Database, among the top 10 natural disasters in Bhutan between 1900 to 2012, in terms of the number of casualties and number affected, all of them occurred in the last two decades (except epidemic outbreaks), which makes certain degree of attribution of climate change to the increasing magnitude of such hazards plausible. The most pronounced consequences of climate change in Bhutan are two folds: disruptions in the monsoonal system and increasing/intensifying trends of extreme hydro-meteorological hazards, both of which are obviously closely linked. These disturbances will amplify the socioeconomic challenges for the Bhutanese society, especially in rural areas where the majority of the population is engaged in rain-fed agriculture and rampant poverty makes them least equipped to adapt to creeping changes in climate.

Monsoon rains generally arrive during the summer months (from late June to late September). Downscaled simulations undertaken in Bhutan’s SNC indicate that the mean annual rainfall will increase by 26-30% by 2069 compared to the baseline year of 1980. This increase occurs primarily during the summer monsoon season while the dry winter season rainfall is projected to decline slightly. In addition, accelerated melting of glaciers, which act as a gigantic natural water retention and dispensing mechanism to communities downstream, is disrupting the hydrological regime of the perennial river systems in the region. All in all, climate change will increase the uncertainty of water availability throughout the year, and rural farmers are likely to have to better manage high fluctuation of rainfalls – increasing volume of monsoonal rain so that they can sustain longer dry periods. This poses significant risks to development when built rural infrastructure to alleviate water shortages, such as communal rainwater harvesting, is minimally available. 

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Risks from climate-induced floods and landslides reduced in the economic and industrial hub of Bhutan
    • Output 1.1: Protection of Pasakha Industrial area from flooding events through riverbank protection, river training and development of flood buffer zones
    • Output 1.2: Slope stabilization to reduce climate-induced landslides in the Phuntsholing Township
    • Output 1.3: Integrated risk hazard assessment and mapping completed in 4 critical landslide and flashflood prone areas with data collection standards compatible with the national database
  • Outcome 2: Community resilience to climate-induced risks (drought, flood, landslides, windstorms, forest fires) strengthened in at least four Dzongkhags
    • Output 2.1: Climate-resilient water harvesting, storage and distribution systems designed, built and rehabilitated in at least four Dzongkhags, based on observed and projected changes in rainfall patterns and intensity
    • Output 2.2: Community-level water resource inventory completed and maintained by Dzongkhag administration to increase the adaptive capacity of communities in the face of increasing water scarcity
    • Output 2.3: Disaster Management Institutions at various levels established and trained in four Dzongkhags to prepare for, and respond to, more frequent and intense floods, storms and wildfire events
  • Outcome 3: Relevant information about climate-related risks and threats shared across community-based organizations and planners in climate-sensitive policy sectors on a timely and reliable basis
    • Output 3.1: Enhanced quality, availability and transfer of real-time climate data in all Dzongkhags which experience increasing frequency of extreme hydo-meterological events
    • Output 3.2: Increased effectiveness of National Weather and Flood Forecasting and Warning Center through improved capacity to analyze, manage and disseminate climate information in a timely manner

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Ugyen Dorji
Project Support Officer
UNDP
Ms. Mariana Simoes
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Adaptation
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Display Photo: 

South Sudan National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)

Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (31.5527343594 5.46872688396)
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

A detailed schedule of project review meetings will be developed by the project management, in consultation with project implementation partners and stakeholder representatives and incorporated in the Project Inception Report. Such a schedule will include: (i) tentative time frames for Project Board Meetings, (or relevant advisory and/or coordination mechanisms) and (ii) project related Monitoring and Evaluation activities.

 

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Senior Technical Advisor
Location: 

Strengthening National and Decentralized Management for Global Environmental Benefits in Togo

The project titled “Strengthening National and Decentralized Management for Global Environmental Benefits in Togo” aims to strengthen capacities at the systemic, organizational, and individual levels of the government. These in turn will reinforce Togo's efforts to mainstream environmental priorities into sectoral policies and apply sound environmental management practices.  The expected outcome of the project is that Togo will be able to catalyze effective and efficient implementation of international environmental conventions.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (1.14257811795 7.54765560789)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Ministry for the Environment and Forest Resources (MERF), Government of Togo

PIFs

Togo – GEF Trust Project Identification Form (31 January 2012)

Financing Amount: 
$847,000 (As of 31 January 2012, detailed in PIF)
Co-Financing Total: 
$1,165,000 (As of 31 January 2012, detailed in PIF)
Project Details: 

(More information to come)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project has two main components with the following associated outcomes –

  1. Strengthen the national institutional framework for environmental management through creation of tools for the National Commission for Sustainable Development (CNDD) to effectively coordinate the implementation of global environment convention articles (Outcome 1.1); collection of data, knowledge, tools and human resources for the National Agency for Environmental Management (ANGE) to effectively implement the global environment Convention articles lying within its mandate (Outcome 1.2); capacity building of the National Environmental Fund (FNE) to mobilize and allocate resources (Outcome 1.3) and; capacity building of the National Committees for the global conventions to effectively oversee the achievement of the Convention’s obligations, and to ensure coordination and synergies (Outcome 1.4).
  2. Decentralization of planning and management to implement the global environment conventions including formulation of a modified decentralization methodology, revised databases, guidelines, monitoring system and local plans among others. This will first be piloted and then replicated across the country to support adaptation and conservation activities.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

(More information to come)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

(More information to come)

Mainstreaming global environmental concerns in the post-conflict rapid development of Sri Lanka

Having recently successfully achieved an end to armed conflict in the country, Sri Lanka is in the process of adopting a peaceful and rapid planned development process. Considering the rich biodiversity of the country, the Sri Lankan government recognizes that it is equally necessary to protect natural resources, to safeguard the environment, and to be prudent in the use of the natural assets. However it has been identified that to do so would require additional capacity at systemic, institutional and individual levels for managing and disseminating information.

In an effort to respond to this challenge, this UNDP-supported, GEF Trust fund project, Mainstreaming global environmental concerns in the post-conflict rapid development of Sri Lanka, is to be implemented through two components – the strengthening of environmental data and information systems including global reporting and mainstreaming environment into awareness, planning, decision-making and socio-economic development.
 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (80.5078124754 6.28253854793)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Ministry of Environment, Government of Sri Lanka

PIFs

Financing Amount: 
$880,000 (As of 7 November 2012 detailed in PIF)
Co-Financing Total: 
$1,675,000 (As of 7 November 2012 detailed in PIF)
Project Details: 

(More information to come)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project has two components with the following associated outcomes –

Data and information management through the development of a data collection system that covers needs of Rio Convention and Rio+20 outcomes (Outcome 1.1); An accessible and user-friendly national data clearing house, with links to sub-national and sector agencies (Outcome 1.2); Identification of stakeholders with the  capacity to access, use and intepret the information (Outcome 1.3) and;Identification of a set of indicators for environment monitoring and natural resources management supporting both global and national needs (Output 1.4).

Planning and decision-making through ncreased capacity in planning departments to integrate global environment and local environment into integrated planning and monitoring (Outcome 2.1); High level awareness of global environmental values and environmental sustainability and resilience issues (Outcome 2.2) and; Operationalization of the National (Haritha Lanka) Green Strategy and Action Plan that also address global environmental concerns (Outcome 2.3).

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

(More information to come)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

(More information to come)