Global

Taxonomy Term List

SCALA Argentina

Country overview 

Argentina is considered a high-income economy with a GDP of US$600 billion in 2016 and a population of over 44 million. In the last decadesthe country has experienced a marked growth on its agriculture and food sectors, accounting to 54 percent of its land use, and playing a strategic role on the socio-economic development of the countrywith 54 percent of employment. Agriculture and animal husbandry and fragile ecosystems are also especially vulnerable to the intensification of extreme climate events, affecting the production and supply of food on national and global scaleThe country is considered a top emitter for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-use, contributing to 2.1 percent of the global emissionsand with domestic emissions made up of livestock (21.6 percent); agriculture (5.8 percent) and Land-Use Land-Use Change and Forestry LULUCF (9.8 percent).

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POINT (-65.039062495536 -36.796089507293)
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Country priorities 

In 2016, Argentina submitted its NDC, identifying several agriculture-related prioritiesArgentina has prioritized the development of adaptative capacities and promoted the strategic role of the agricultural sectors as a solution to climate change. In 2020, the country signed the new United Nation Strategic Cooperation Framework (2021-2025) and confirmed its interest to push forward the agenda that seeks to enhance ambition and catalyze action for land-use and agriculture. Argentina submitted its revised NDC in December 2020, ratifying a more ambitious commitment to the Paris Agreement and providing a specific and broader role to adaptation, with the national goal of decreasing 19 percent of its total GHG emissions by 2030, compared to the historical peak of 2007, and 25.7 percent compared to the previous NDC. The country has committed to elaborate its Long-Term Climate Strategy by the end of 2021.

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2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

SCALA Costa Rica

Country overview 

Costa Rica is in Central America and has a varied topography that includes coastal plains separated by rugged mountains, including over 100 volcanic cones and inhabits around 5 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Costa Rica is among global leaders in responding to climate change, with a long history of environmental protection, sustainable development, and action on climate change mitigation. Costa Rica’s vulnerability to extreme climate events and natural hazards is a result of the presence of populations in areas prone to volcanic eruptions and in unstable lands, degraded by wide-spread cattle ranching, or in poorly planned settlements prone to landslides and flooding. A total of 36 percent of Costa Rica’s land use is attributed to agriculture, and it accounts for 14 percent of the country’s employment. 

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Country priorities 

Costa Rica’s Costa Rica National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), states the priorities with respect to agricultural sustainable production, namely the 1) promotion of adaptation based on ecosystems outside the State's natural heritage, through the conservation of biodiversity in biological corridors, private reserves and farms under forest regime 2) promotion of water security in the face of climate change, through the protection and monitoring of sources and proper management of hydrological basinsThe National Development Plan (2019-2022) reaffirmed the ambitious goal to promote a carbon neutral economy by 2021 and laid out strategies to promote renewable energy, reduce GHG emissions, and consider adaptation initiatives.  

In 2016, Costa Rica submitted its first NDC. Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), as well as the National Decarbonization Plan (2018-2050) and the NAMA coffeeNAMA livestock, NAMA sugarcane and NAMA Musaceae, reflect the continued commitment of the country towards the ambitious goal to promote a carbon-neutral economy, while implementing the adaptation agenda. In December 2020, Costa Rica submitted its revised NDCincluding a climate change adaptation component with clear commitments for 2030. 

 

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2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

SCALA Cote D'Ivoire

Country overview 

Côte d’Ivoire is located in West Africa along the Gulf of Guinea with the Atlantic running along its southern edge. As a top world exporter of cocoa and cashews and with 70 percent of the working population employed in the agricultural industry, Côte d’Ivoire is vulnerable to variations in weather and climate as well as external shocks in its export trade. Côte d’Ivoire has the second largest economy in West Africa. High rainfall in the south fuels a fertile agricultural industry, which contributes to 27 percent of GDP. A heavy economic reliance on agriculture, in addition to continued environmental degradation and deforestation all contribute to the country’s vulnerability to climate change. In addition, the agriculture and land use sectors hold an 18 percent share of the country's total GHG emissions. 

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POINT (-5.3118896546725 8.0592309607409)
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Country priorities

The Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MINEDD) of Côte d‘Ivoire is the key coordinating body for formulating and updating climate and environmental policies for sustainable development. Côte d’Ivoire ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016 and submitted their first NDC the same year. The NDC intends to reconcile development and reduction of GHG emissions. Due to the country’s vulnerability to climate change impacts, especially in the key agricultural exports sector, adaptation is also a priority.  

The revision of the NDC ahead of COP26 in 2021 is ongoing, and the NAP process has been underway in Côte d’Ivoire since 2015. The adaptation planning is crucial in 11 identified priority sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, including agriculture, forestry, land use and gender as a cross-cutting theme. The second generation National Agricultural Investment Program 2017-2025 aims to increase added value of agricultural products; strengthen agricultural production systems that are respectful of the environment; and promote inclusive growth.  

 

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2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

SCALA Egypt

Country overview 

Most of Egypt’s population and infrastructure are concentrated in the Nile Delta and along the Mediterranean coast, which makes the country vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise, particularly inundation and saltwater intrusion. Most agricultural production is concentrated near the banks of the River Nile, and agriculture is the biggest employer with over 31.2 percent of the total population. Agriculture contributed 14 percent to GDP in 2009 and contributes 10 percent of the country's total emissions. Agriculture is the biggest consumer of freshwater resources – over 80 percent. In the agricultural sector, climate change studies expect that the productivity of two major crops in Egypt - wheat and maize – will be reduced by 15 percent and 19 percent, respectively, by 2050.  

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POINT (29.102783190725 26.326248946066)
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Country priorities 

In 2011, a National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction was released. This strategy lays out the path to overcome the challenges raised by climate change and estimates the investment required to reach its strategic goals. Egypt ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017 and submitted their NDC, which focuses on the sustainability of agriculture, the environment, water resources, energy, and land management as priority areas.  

 

The NDC outlines Adaptation Action Packages with specific adaptation goals for the most vulnerable sectors, including agriculture. Such adaptation actions include building an effective institutional system to manage climate change associated crises and disasters at the national level. There is strong political will to address the impacts of climate change in all vulnerable sectors (agriculture, health, energy, tourism, water, and coastal zones). The UNDP-supported Green Climate Fund-financed National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness Programme has been established and is in an initial phase of implementation. This NAP programme targets support to build climate resilience in Egypt by improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation (CCA) planning, examining climate risks, determining CCA priorities, integrating CCA into national and sectoral planning and budgeting, and increasing investment in adaptation actions. There is a large and fast-growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector and a large domestic market, with potential for improving integration of private sector actors in agriculture in national climate change action. 

 

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2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

SCALA Ethiopia

Country overview

Ethiopia is a landlocked country in Northeast Africa and has a population of over 104.9 million. The country has long been coping with extreme weather events, such as severe floods, droughts and desert locust invasion. Future climate variability and change are expected to worsen these conditions, potentially accelerating already high levels of land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, desertification, recurrent floods, as well as water and air pollution. In Ethiopia, agriculture and land-use are high GHG emitting sectors with around 80 percent of domestic emissions.  Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economic strategy and food security, by providing livelihoods and employment to 95 percent of the population.  

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POINT (39.649658188836 8.0205605250015)
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Country priorities 

Ethiopia submitted its first NDC in 2017, in support of the country’s efforts to realize its development goals as laid out in its Growth and Transformation Plan II and its Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy. Ethiopia’s NDC will help operationalize green growth - within the country’s development and economic planning. Transforming crop and livestock production systems and value chains for food security, together with re-establishing forests for ecosystem services, constitute key pillars in Ethiopia’s strategy for climate resilience and inclusive green growth. The NDC mitigation component includes improving crop and livestock production for food security and farmer incomes and protecting and re-establishing forests for their economic and GHG storage capacity. The adaptation component stresses the importance of mainstreaming adaptation into all national processes and engaging with farmers and pastoralists. 

Ethiopia submitted a National Adaptation Plan (NAP-ETH) in March 2019. NAP-ETH focuses on the sectors that have been identified as most vulnerable, namely: agriculture, forestry, health, transport, power, industry, water and urban. Within these sectors, 18 adaptation options have been identified for implementation at all administrative levels and across different development sectors, recognizing the considerable diversity in context and vulnerability across Ethiopias regions and social groups. Ethiopia is working to integrate climate information into planning and decision-making for development interventions, and prioritizing climate resilience across policies to improve the adaptive capacity at national/federal, regional and Woreda levels. The plan is guided by the principles of participation, coherent interventions, stakeholder empowerment, gender sensitivity, equitable implementation and partnership. 

 

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2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

SCALA Senegal

Country priorities 

Senegal is a Sahelian country located in West Africa with a steadily growing economy over recent years. However, poverty in Senegal is still prevalent in rural areas, where roughly 60 percent of the population resides. The other 40 percent of the population resides in urban areas, where the majority live in rapidly growing urban suburbs. Low agricultural production, limited capacity of the economy to create sustainable jobs, and inadequate resource allocation for social services contribute to poverty. Senegal is vulnerable to a number of climate-related impacts, such as drought, locust invasion, flooding, sea-level rise, coastal erosion and related health epidemics as well as bush fires. The agriculture sector in Senegal represents 36 percent of its GHG emissions and 16.6 percent of GDP. 

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POINT (-15.224304203678 14.897604348482)
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Country priorities 

The country developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 and submitted an INDC in 2015, which outlined Senegal’s plans for mitigation and adaptation.  There is strong institutional coordination on climate change in Senegal. The NDC was recently revised and submitted ahead of COP26 in 2021, while sectoral NAPs are currently under development. The Plan for an Emerging Senegal (Plan Sénégal Emergent) reflects the strong political will for development based on more sustainable production patterns and food systems. Since 2019, various actors involved in agroecology in Senegal have come together under the DyTAES (Dynamique pour une Transition AgroEcologique au Sénégal) framework to contribute to the reflections of the Senegalese government with a view to building an agroecological transition policy. FAO has also been supporting Senegal through the “Strengthening National Adaptation Planning Capacities for Food Security and Nutrition” project focusing on an interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach to increase resilience of the agriculture sector. 

 

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2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

SCALA Uganda

Country overview 

Uganda experiences the effects of climate change in the form of increased temperatures, frequent disease outbreak and insect infestations, disrupted rainfall patterns, and frequent floods and droughts.  While Uganda has progressively undergone social and economic growth and transformation, consequently reducing its poverty rate by 23 percent over the last two decades, sustained gains will require continued investments in agriculture, and the inclusive participation in economic growth of women as well the population reported poor in 2019. With 95 percent of the population engaged in rain-fed subsistence farming for food and cash income, the country’s reliance on rain-fed agriculture remains a risk to economic growth, income of farmers, as well as export earnings. Agriculture contributes up to 40 percent of Uganda’s total GDP and over 90 percent of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. The agriculture sector contributes to 27 percent of emissions, followed by the land-use and forestry sector with approximately 60 percent of emissions.  

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POINT (33.115539537662 1.5134964330573)
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Country priorities 

In its first NDC, Uganda prioritized adaptation. The country is committed to work on reducing climate change vulnerability and addressing adaptation in agriculture and livestock, forestry, infrastructure (with an emphasis on human settlements, social infrastructure and transport), water, energy, health and disaster risk management. Sustainable Land Management (SLM), sustainable natural resources management (mainly wetlands and natural forests restoration, open water bodies protection), and climate-smart agriculture will be scaled up to increase resilience and adaptability at community level and leverage synergies with the county’s land-based mitigation goals.  

Uganda was part of the FAO and UNDP supported NAP-Ag Programme and developed a gender responsive NAP-Ag framework.  With support from the NAP-Ag Programme, Uganda formulated a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for the agriculture sector, which now requires support for implementation. 

 

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility

The Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF), established by Canada in partnership with UNDP, aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches.  This facility incorporates national projects in CambodiaCabo VerdeHaitiMaliNigerand Sudanthat scale up or extend projects previously supported by the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Countries Fund (GEF/LDCF).  In addition, a global component of the CCAF promotes south-south cooperation and enhance understanding about initiatives that address adaptation, especially the gender dimensions. 

The global Facility collects and analyzes information, experiences, and lessons learned emanating from the six national projects to produce and disseminate knowledge that can be shared between the countries and usefully applied in other contexts.  The CCAF also helps to broadly inform climate and sustainable development policies at the local, national and global levels, while promoting global exchange of information, experiences, and lessons learned.

Click on the country name below to find out more about each national project.

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Communications Products

A debut cookbook of climate-resilient recipes

Knowledge Products

Project Brief / Fact Sheet

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: No Water, No Life (SP)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: No Water, No Life (FR)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: No Water, No Life (EN)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: Waiting for Rain (EN)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: An Island Without Water (FR)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: An Island Without Water (EN)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: Coasts At Risk (SP)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: Coasts At Risk (FR)

UNDP Printable Photo Essay: Coasts At Risk (EN)

Training & Tools

Guidance on Generating Content

Case Study

Case Study: Understanding Gender and its links to Climate Change in Mali

Programme Related Events

La Facilité d’adaptation aux changements climatiques Canada/PNUD

La Facilité d’adaptation aux changements climatiques Canada/PNUD œuvre pour renforcer la sécurité alimentaire et la gestion de l’eau dans le contexte des changements climatiques. Elle soutient des initiatives d’adaptation dans six pays en développement: le Cap-Vert, le Cambodge, Haïti, le Mali, le Niger et le Soudan. Elle encourage les échanges, tout en favorisant la diffusion des stratégies innovantes ainsi que la transposition à plus grande échelle des initiatives concluantes. 
 

Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility Video

This 5 minute video gives an introduction to the Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF). Established by Canada in partnership with UNDP, the facility aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches.

The CCAF facility incorporates national projects in Cambodia, Cabo Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger, and Sudan, that scale up or extend projects previously supported by the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Countries Fund.

Le Fonds d’Adaptation au Changement Climatique Canada-PNUD

Le Fonds d’Adaptation au Changement Climatique Canada-PNUD aide six pays à se préparer et à répondre aux impacts du changement climatique sur les vies et les moyens de subsistance

Le Fonds encourage l'échange et l'interaction entre ces pays et régions. Pour partager leurs approches novatrices et expériences réussies. Réunir connaissances et expériences est la seule façon de relever le défi du changement climatique.

Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility Trailer

This short trailer gives an introduction to the Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF). Established by Canada in partnership with UNDP, the facility aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches.

The CCAF facility incorporates national projects in Cambodia, Cape Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger, and Sudan, that scale up or extend projects previously supported by the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Countries Fund.

Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility: Experiences from Mali

This photostory illustrates activities being undertaken and results achieved under a Canada-funded climate change adaptation project in Mali.

Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility: Experience from Cambodia and Sudan

This video provides an illustration and comparison of the concrete activities and results achieved to adapt to climate change in Cambodia and Sudan.  While working in different contexts, both countries are working to address similar challenges related to food security and water management through gender-sensitive approaches.  These projects are implemented under the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility- supported by the Global Environment Facility's Least Developed Countries Fund and the Government of Canada.

Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility: Experiences from Sudan

This video illustrates specific activities and impressive results emerging from the climate change adptation project being implemented in Sudan.  Focusing primarily on the State of North Kordofan, resilient agricultural and water management practice are being introduced to address food security and water scarcity issues exacerbated by climate change.  This work is part of a project supported by the Global Environment Fund's Least Developed Countries Fund, and the Government of Canada.

Project Details: 

As illustrated below, the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility targets and supports three groups of stakeholders through its work:

1) Canada-funded adaptation projects Community of Practice which strengthens implementation of Canada-funded projects by facilitating communication, identifying lessons learned and sharing resources between project stakeholders'

2) Other CCA projects which strengthens and informs other adaptation projects supported by UNDP and other partners by documenting and sharing lessons learned from Canada-funded projects.  CCAF projects will also use lessons learned from this wider portfolio to inform implementation.

3) External Partners through communicating and sharing lessons learned from Canada-funded projects and UNDP's broader CCA portfolio with partners and donors.

 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The global Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility has three key outcomes:

Outcome 1: Global coordination of Canada-UNDP portfolio of climate change adaptation projects is operational and visible

Outcome 2: Global knowledge management of climate change adaptation experience and lessons emerging from Canada-UNDP portfolio of projects is enhanced and effective

Outcome 3: Gender results from Canada-UNDP climate change adaptation project portfolio inform broader adaptation processes.

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Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Global Exchange Workshop - Niamey, 2-5 March 2015: Bringing together a diversity of knowledge and experience is the only way to tackle the challenge of climate change. 

   To see video interviews with workshop participants, visit the CCAF YouTube Channel.
 
Climate change adaptation is a new and evolving area of work that has bourgeoned in the last decade, with many different measures tried, and many successes, challenges and lessons emerging.  As such, it becomes increasingly important to ensure the information and knowledge arising from this vast experience is shared through exchange and interaction at all levels - within countries, across borders and between regions. This was the aim behind the Global Exchange Workshop on Adaptation for Food Security and Resilience.  This Workshop, co-hosted by the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF) and the Africa Climate Adaptation Food Security (ACA) regional programme, brought together experts from eleven countries to share their experiences and lessons learn on a variety of adaptation-related issues.
 

The CCAF was established in 2014 to promote south-south cooperation and enhance understanding about initiatives that address adaptation, with a focus on gender dimensions. This Facility focuses on six initiatives supported by Canada, all aiming to strengthen resilient approaches to agriculture and water management. It also provides broader exchange between these projects and other adaptation initiatives supported by UNDP and other partners.  Similarly, the ACA regional programme, supported by the Government of Japan, aims to 1) improve climate information systems for informed decision-making and integrated planning approaches; and 2) test and scale up climate risk management measures including weather index insurance and community based adaptation measures, while also enhancing the capacity to access and manage climate finance. These two initiatives jointly hosted the Exchange Workshop in Niamey, Niger from 2-5 March.

Representatives from countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Arab States were brought together to share experiences and document critical lessons and successes emerging from their ongoing projects. The workshop was organized around six thematic issues:

  • Climate-related information and services,
  • Innovations in water, soil, energy and crop management technologies and approaches,
  • Strengthening policy and institutions to better integrate agriculture, food security and climate change,
  • Financing measures for resilience,
  • Gender-sensitive approaches, and
  • Measuring impact of adaptation on development outcomes. 

Every participating country shared at least one innovative experience from their project related to these themes, and participants discussed the various processes, challenges and success factors that would allow others to apply the same approach in their countries.

The participants also visited three project sites near Niamey, where adaptation activities are being undertaken with support of the GEF and the Government of Canada. Activities observed included the introduction of new irrigation techniques and supporting women’s collectives engage with alternative income generating activities, such as gardening and livestock fattening. The participants had an opportunity to speak with the beneficiaries directly and understand their experiences and challenges.

This workshop stands as the first step in establishing a community of practice around the issues of adaptation and food security.  The information shared will be turned into technical briefings and comparative analyses, and the countries will continue their exchange.  A full workshop report is available on the CCAF ALM website here: in English: Proceedings of Global Exchange Workshop - Niamey, 2-5 March 2015, and en Francais: Rapport de l"Atelier International d'Echanges sur l'Adaptation pour la Securite Alimentaire et la Resilience and all of the presentations and workshop materials are available on the Global Exchange Workshop Teamworks Page.  

For further information, please contact Jennifer Baumwoll, CCAF project coordinator at Jennifer.baumwoll@undp.org

News and Updates: 

How to get gender-responsive adaptation right

Why is it so difficult to integrate gender into climate change responses? Even with increased emphasis from global policies, donors and funding streams, gender-responsive adaptation is still challenging. Observers mention a number of hurdles such as limited resources, lack of information or deficient expertise —it seems that many practitioners lack an understanding of how to do it. The underlying issue, though, is a refusal to accept that gender-responsive adaptation is better adaptation. We must therefore shift the way that we approach it. Typical solutions to addressing gender in climate change include scattering into proposals and other documents terms like “women” and “equality”, or increasing the number of women beneficiaries in climate projects. In practice, this fails to fundamentally change any part of the underlying design or implementation of a strategy or programme, and therefore has limited impact on ensuring true gender equality. Climate change adaptation is inherently context-specific, and often based on changing behaviour. Climatic changes vary based on the location, as do the social, economic and cultural conditions which define resilience and sustainability. Therefore, when it comes to integrating gender into adaptation, there is no single solution. This is, again, why the challenge is so real.

SciDev
Tuesday 5 September 2017


Women. Work. Climate. by Climate Adaptation UNDP on Exposure


Adaptive Farms, Resilient Tables by Climate Adaptation UNDP on Exposure


Equal Access to Water by Climate Adaptation UNDP on Exposure


Women. Food. Climate. by Climate Adaptation UNDP on Exposure


Run the World by Climate Adaptation UNDP on Exposure


Solar EmPOWERment by Climate Adaptation UNDP on Exposure

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Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Programme in Asia and the Pacific

The Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Programme in Asia and the Pacific

The objective of this programme, the first phase of which ran between 2012 and 2015, was to strengthen the capacity of technical officers in Ministries of Planning/Finance, as well as line Ministries (Environment, Agriculture, Water, Public Works, and others) to assess economic costs and benefits when evaluating different adaptation alternatives, as they relate to medium- and long-term national, sub-national and sectoral development plans.

The programme  aimed to produce a cadre of practitioners in government who can prepare high-quality economic analyses related to climate change adaptation projects and programmes. In coordination with other ongoing and planned UNDP initiatives, the programme was designed to strengthen governments’ capacity to more fully integrate climate change adaptation into national, sub-national and sector planning and budgeting.

Ultimately, the programme sought to institutionalize these important analytical skills into ministries and departments, and to enable countries to formulate economically efficient and climate resilient development plans, including National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) - a process established under the Cancun Adaptation Framework (CAF) to help countries identify their medium- and long-term adaptation needs.

In 2017, the ECCA programme transitioned into Phase Two, in collaboration with the Asian Insititute of Technology.

For more information visit : ECCA Asia and the Pacific.

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The programme aims to produce a cadre of technical officers in each country who are able to conduct economic analyses of climate change adaptation and to feed those analyses into planning and budgeting processes. The programme will seek to strengthen existing systems of sector level planning and budgeting to incorporate key results from the economics of adaptation so that decisions can be evidence-based.
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Knowledge Products

Economics of Climate Change Adaptation (ECCA): Sri Lanka

Economics of Climate Change Adaptation (ECCA): Mongolia

Economics of Climate Change Adaptation (ECCA): Viet Nam

Training & Tools

Economics of Adaptation: Toolkit

Highlights

Assessments and Background Documents

Background paper - Pacific Cost-Benefit Analysis Initiative (P-CBA)

Document

Hydro-Economic Model Webinar

Examples of Cost- Benefit Analysis Reports

Niue PACC Cost- Benefit Analysis Final Report

Tuvalu PACC Cost- Benefit Analysis Final Report

The Solomon Islands PACC Cost- Benefit Analysis Final Report

The Republic of Marshall Islands PACC Cost- Benefit Analysis Report

Palau PACC Cost- Benefit Analysis Report

Samoa PACC Cost- Benefit Analysis Final Report

Relevant Peer-Reviewed Articles

Climate Models at Their Limit? (Mark Maslin and Patrick Austin, 2012)

Efficient Adaptation to Climate Change (Robert Mendelsohn, 2000)

Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Egyptian Economy (2012)

Frequently Asked Questions: The UNDP Capacity Assessment Methodology (UNDP, 2009)

Capacity Development: Measuring Capacity (UNDP, 2010)

Capacity Development: Practice Note (UNDP, 2008)

Capacity Assessment: Practice Note (UNDP, 2008)

Capacity Development: A UNDP Primer (UNDP, 2009)

Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects (European Commission, 2008)

Handbook on Economic Analysis of Investment Operations (World Bank, 1998)

Annotated Bibliography of Adaptation Studies

Project Details: 

The programme was designed and rolled out as a compliment to UNDP's support to countries on adaptation with financing from the Least Developed Country Fund, Special Climate Change Fund (managed by the Global Environment Facility) and the Adaptation Fund. It was aligned with UNDP-GEF-UNEP support to countries that are preparing to formulate National Adaptation Plans (NAPs).

Specifically, the approach adopted in this capacity building programme was based on the following key elements:

• Training of technical officers at the national and sub-national level to estimate the economic costs and benefits of climate change impacts as well as adaptation options. 
• Support to technical officers at the national and sub-national level, to assess the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation options in order to promote learning by doing.
• Establishment of the training programme within a suitable center of excellence in the country or region that can provide continuous technical advisory support on the economics of adaptation to countries developing national adaptation plans and investment projects.
• Convening of policy dialogue forums with Ministries of Planning/Finance and line Ministries at the country and regional level to discuss the economics of adaptation in the context of national and sub-national medium and long-term national development plans and investment projects.
• Development and nurturing of a virtual community of practice of technical officers working on the economics of adaptation.
• Support for the appraisal of investment projects for adaptation that can be financed from current and emerging sources of climate finance.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 


• Technical officers in Planning, Finance, Environment, Agriculture, Water and Public Works Ministries and others at the national and sub-national level were trained to estimate the economic costs and benefits of climate change impacts, as well as adaptation options. 
• Country Teams (comprised of technical officers from relevant Government Ministries, academia and others) conducted assessments on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation options (this work was linked to ongoing adaptation projects financed by the Least Developed Country Fund, Special Climate Change Fund and/or Adaptation Fund).
• Investment projects for adaptation financed from current and emerging sources of funds such as the Green Climate Fund were assessed in terms of their economic costs and benefits.
• The training programme was established within a suitable learning center in the country or region in order to provide continuous technical advisory support to countries on the assessment of economic costs/benefits of adaptation.
• Regular policy dialogue forums with Ministries of Planning/Finance and line Ministries were conducted at the country and regional level, to discuss the economics of adaptation in the context of national and sub-national medium and long-term national development planning process.
• A virtual community of practice working on the economics of adaptation was established, with innovative means to share lessons and knowledge, including Live Chats and Webinars- virtual classroom settings where participants discuss issues with the lead mentors as well as each other. The Global ALM platform provided facilities for the community of practice to share learning materials, as well as lessons learned.

    Contacts: 
    UNDP
    Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
    Head of Climate Change Adaptation, Global Environmental Finance Unit, Bureau for Policy and Programme Support
    UNDP
    Mari Tomova
    Technical Specialist
    Project Status: 
    News and Updates: 

    'Uniting theory and action: Asia Pacific Economics of Climate Change Adaptation programme relaunches' - UNDP, June 2017. Notice of launch of Phase Two of the ECCA  Programme in partnership with the Asian Institute of Technology.

    Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Training, 21 August – 1 September 2017, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Materials from training, lead by Asian Institute of Technology in collaboration with UNDP.


     

    Information in French / Informations en français: 


    Display Photo: 
    Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 


    Civil Society Engagement: 


    Community-Based Adaptation: Kazakhstan

    While Kazakhstan has a rapidly growing economy, farmers and pastoralists outside of the main urban centers face significant climate change risks to their livelihoods stemming from increased aridity. A combination of rising temperatures, declining average rainfall, and regional deglaciation threaten to cause:

    • Increased drought risk in rainfed farmlands
    • Increased salinization risk in irrigated farmlands
    • Increased erosion risks in both farmlands and rangelands
    • Declining rangeland water resources, leading to overstocking and erosion around remaining water resources
    • Decreased habitat for native fauna

    Community-Based Adaptation in Kazakhstan will work with communities to integrate climate change concerns into sustainable rangeland and agricultural management practices, and work with local water managers to integrate climate change concerns into irrigation regimes for climate-resilient and sustainable agriculture. Activities will be guided by the Kazakhstan CBA Country Programme Strategy.

    The Government of Switzerland co-finances six of the CBA projects in Kazakhstan that focus on land degradation and water scarcity. The partnership began in November 2009.

    The CBA Kazakhstan portfolio consists of ten (10) projects:

    1. Reducing Vulnerability to Declining Water Supplies in Burevestnik

    2. Forest Protection Belts to Combat Increasing Aridity in Shyrkyn Village

    3. Sustainable Water and Land Management in South Kazakhstan Under Increased Aridity

    4. Demonstrating Adaptive Land Management in Priozernoye

    5. Climate-Resilient Horse Production in Kargaly Village

    6. Climate-Resilient Pasture and Livestock Management in Zhangeldy Village

    7. Adaptation to Increased Aridity through Climate-Resilient Agro-Silvo-Pastoralism Using Sauxal

    8. Adapting Grazing Stock-Raising in Lepsy Village

    9. Adapting Farming Practices to Increasing Temperatures and Aridity in Akmola Oblast

    10. Autumn/Winter Irrigation as Adaptive Mechanism for Water Resources

    Kazakhstan is one of ten (10) countries implementing projects as part of UNDP's "Community-Based Adaptation" programme. *

    Undefined
    Photos: 
    Region/Country: 
    Level of Intervention: 
    Coordinates: 
    POINT (71.3671875 51.0699330714)
    Financing Amount: 
    $408,890 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)

    Brochures, Posters, Communications Products

    Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change Brochure (July 2010)

    Annual Reports

    Community-Based Adaptation in Kazakhstan and Central Asia

    Case Study

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kogal - Success Story

    CBA Kazakhstan - Akbota - Success Story

    Adaptation Bulletin

    CBA Feature in Adaptation Bulletin (issue 7)

    ProDocs

    CBA Kazakhstan - Country Programme Strategy (English)

    PIFs

    CBA Kazakhstan - NPZ - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - NPZ - Project Concept (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Burevestnik - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Burevestnik - Project Concept (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Burevestnik - Project Concept (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kargaly - Project Concept (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kargaly - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kargaly - Project Summary (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Zhuldyz - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Zhuldyz - Project Concept (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Zhuldyz - Project Concept (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Shymkent - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Shymkent - Project Concept (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Shymkent - Project Proposal (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Shymkent - Project Concept (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - ToN - Project Proposal (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - ToN - Project Concept (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - ToN - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - ToN - Project Concept (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Lepsy - Project Proposal (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Lepsy - Project Concept Paper (RUS)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Lepsy - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Lepsy - Project Summary (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Akbota - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Akbota - Project Summary (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Biogene - Project Proposal

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kogal - Project Proposal (EN)

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kogal - Project Summary (EN)

    Project Brief / Fact Sheet

    CBA Kazakhstan - NPZ - Fast Facts

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kargaly - Fast Facts

    CBA Kazakhstan - Zhuldyz - Fast Facts

    CBA Kazakhstan - Shymkent - Fast Facts

    CBA Kazakhstan - ToN - Fast Facts

    CBA Kazakhstan - Lepsy - Fast Facts

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kogal - Fast Facts

    Assessments and Background Documents

    CBA Kazakhstan - Shymkent - Final Evaluation

    CBA Kazakhstan - ToN - Final Evaluation

    CBA Kazakhstan - Lepsy - Final Evaluation

    CBA Kazakhstan - Kogal - Final Evaluation

    Co-Financing Total: 
    $463,000 (approximate, as detailed Aug. 2012)
    Project Details: 

    Kazakhstan is a semiarid to arid country with a temperate climate, facing significant desiccation in the face of climate change, and significant exacerbation of baseline (non-climate) pressures.  Kazakhstan’s national communications to the UNFCCC indicate that climate change scenarios for Kazakhstan project an increase in average temperature (approximately +1.4 by 2030 to +4.6 by 2085), and northward migration of humidity zones by as much as 450km.  This increasing aridity threatens to significantly decrease the resilience of Kazakhstan’s ecosystems to land degradation pressures, constituting both a considerable threat to the natural environment, as well as to national development and poverty alleviation targets.

    Climate change impacts are expected to exacerbate existing land degradation pressures, by reducing ecosystem resilience to non-climate drivers of land degradation, while also contributing towards land degradation directly through desiccation and increased wind and water erosion (see section d, “baseline-additionally reasoning”).  Land degradation already had significant adverse impact on rural communities, whose livelihoods are dependant on agriculture and livestock production. Climate change will increase the severity and geographic extent of land degradation pressures, threatening these livelihoods further (INC 2008).    

    The UNDP Community Based Adaptation (CBA) Programme in Kazakhstan will work to reduce the climate change-induced risks on Kazakhstan’s land resources, by developing local capacity and introducing new techniques for climate-resilient sustainable land management. This will be achieved by implementing 8 to 12 demonstration projects that will enhance community and/or ecosystem resilience to climate change impacts.  These projects will also contribute towards securing climate change resilient global environmental benefits (GEB), focusing on sustainable land management. Lessons from projects on best practices will be shared for replication by national development institutions such as the 'Kazyna' Sustainable Development Fund, Small Businesses Support Fund, as well as others within and outside of Kazakhstan.

    The CBA programme draws on priority adaptation-related identified through ongoing work on Kazakhstan’s Second National Communication and other climate change-related programmes, enabling access to climate change and adaptation information as well as policy processes, particularly within the agricultural sector. The Programme will be implemented in Kazakhstan by UNDP using the mechanism of the UNDP/Global Environment Facility’s Small Grants Programme (UNDP-GEF/SGP).  The work will be conducted in alignment with the GEF/SGP country programme and in accordance with the UNDP’s corporate guidelines on climate change adaptation. The CBA projects will be singled out as an individual project portfolio independent of the GEF/SGP regular grant portfolio with implications for independent and separate co-financing requirements.

    Objectives and Impact Indicators

    The objective of the CBA programme in Kazakhstan is to implement the principles of sustainable community management of natural resources in the face of climate change.

    To assess the achievement of the above objective, the following four UNDP Climate Change Adaptation indicators (TA6) will be measured:

    • Number of measures (implemented methodologies/ approaches) deployed as part of climate change resilient sustainable resource management activities;
    • Success of sustainable resource management interventions in securing livelihoods and protecting resources (QBS);
    • Number of stakeholders (e.g. families/households) benefiting from climate change resilient sustainable resource management activities;
    • Number of local and national SLM programmes/policies that are revised to reflect lessons learnt/ best practices from the CBA programme.
    Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

    The objective of the CBA programme in Kazakhstan is to implement the principles of sustainable community management of natural resources in the face of climate change.

    To assess the achievement of the above objective, the following four UNDP Climate Change Adaptation indicators (TA6) will be measured:

    • Number of measures (implemented methodologies/ approaches) deployed as part of climate change resilient sustainable resource management activities;
    • Success of sustainable resource management interventions in securing livelihoods and protecting resources (QBS);
    • Number of stakeholders (e.g. families/households) benefiting from climate change resilient sustainable resource management activities;
    • Number of local and national SLM programmes/policies that are revised to reflect lessons learnt/ best practices from the CBA programme.
    Monitoring & Evaluation: 

    Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.

    Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:

    • Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
    • Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
    • Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination

    To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.

    The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)

    The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:

    • To make M&E responsive to community priorities
    • To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
    • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
    • To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
    • To generate qualitative information
    • To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
    • To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects

    The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.

    UNDP has developed a Users Guide to the VRA (Espanol) (Francais) as a tool to assist practitioners to conceptualize and execute VRA measurements in the context of CBA projects.

    The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)

    The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).

    The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.

    UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework

    CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.

     

    This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *

    Contacts: 
    UNDP
    CBA Project Management Unit
    GEF Small Grants Programme
    Ms. Katerina Yushenko
    National Coordinator (Kazakhstan)
    Funding Source Short Code: 
    SPA